Few animals on Earth evoke the aversion that mosquitoes do. Their presence everywhere can ruin a Bahamian party‚ social or family gathering. Mosquitoes use exhaled carbon dioxide‚ body odors and temperature‚ and movement to hone in on their victims. Once these buzzing annoyance insects bite victims; the bite site becomes redden‚ itchy and irritated. In addition‚ they have a strange ability to sense our intentions to kill them‚ taking flight and disappearing milliseconds before a fatal swat. In our bedrooms‚ the persistent‚ whiny hum of their buzzing wings can wake the soundest of sleepers.
Beyond the nuisance factor‚ mosquitoes are carriers‚ or vectors‚ for some of humanity’s most deadly illnesses. Mosquito–borne diseases cause millions of deaths worldwide every year in developing countries. There are more than 3‚000 species of mosquitoes‚ but the members of three bear primary responsibility for the spread of human diseases such as Malaria‚ Dengue‚ Zika and Chikingunya.
Mosquitoes belong to the same group as the true flies. As such‚ they have a single pair of wings. They typically have long‚ thin legs and a head featuring a prominent proboscis. Their bodies and wings most often covered in tiny scales. Adult sizes may range from 1/8 to ¾ inches. The average lifespan of a mosquito is 2 weeks to 6 months.
Behavior‚ Diet & Habits
Mosquitoes are best known for the habits of the adult females which often feed on blood to help generate their eggs. The male and female mosquito adults also feed on nectar from flowers. Their immature stages usually are located in standing‚ preferably stagnant‚ water.
The larvae feed on variety of materials‚ depending on species. Adult mosquitoes prefer to be most active from dusk until dawn‚ but can become active with sufficient cloud cover or in dark shady areas. They do not prefer to be active in the sunshine since they may desiccate and die.
Males have feathery antennae they use to locate females. After mating‚ females typically seek a blood meal to aid in egg production. She often lays them in standing pools of water‚ including bird baths‚ buckets and tyres etc. Egg numbers vary from species to species but can be as much as over 100 eggs in a single laying. Wormlike larvae‚ called wigglers feed until they are ready to molt into pupae. The pupae are called tumblers. Adults emerge from the pupae onto the water surface where their exoskeleton hardens.
All mosquitoes need water to breed‚ so eradication and population–control efforts usually involve removal or treatment of standing water sources. Insecticide spraying to kill adult mosquitoes and larvicide to control mosquito larvae are also widespread.
Signs of a Mosquito Infestation
Annoying signs of mosquito activity include the buzzing of the females and their bites. People have differing reactions to bites‚ ranging from mild irritation to intense inflammation and swelling.
Signs of the immatures are their presence in standing water‚ which also can include trays of containerized house plants.
How The Pest Destructo Co. treats for mosquitoes
Mosquito treatment is usually an integrated effort involving source reduction plus the use of chemical control products when needed. Since mosquitoes develop in water‚ source reduction targets and eliminates water sources favorable for mosquito breeding. While source reduction is the more effective long–term approach to mosquito treatment‚ the mosquito treatment plan may require using chemical products to supplement source reduction.
The mosquito treatment plan begins with our pest management professional (PMP) conducting a thorough property inspection and identifying the kind of mosquitoes causing problems. Once the inspection and identification is complete‚ we will prepare a mosquito treatment plan that provides recommendations and assistance for both source reduction and necessary chemical product use. Some of the source reduction recommendations might include:
- Reduction or elimination of potential mosquito development sites either natural or man–made site that will collect water.
- Providing recommendations to exclude mosquitoes from getting inside the home.
- Providing recommendations for vegetation management. This is important since many kinds of mosquitoes rest in vegetation around the home during the daylight hours.
Some chemical product uses that may be needed for mosquito treatment include:
- Applying insecticides to vegetation that adult mosquitoes use for sheltered resting sites.
- Applying insect growth regulators that prevent mosquito development in their water environments.
- Applying microbial insecticide products that cause mosquito mortality in their water environments.
When it comes to Mosquitoes The Pest Destructo Co. we’ve got you covered.
Flies have been described as the most prolific pest among humans. At one point or another in your life span‚ you will encounter a fly in your home‚ work‚ at school or in the environment specially while cleaning fishes in the back yard‚ at the seashore or during cook–out while frying fish.
- Adult flies range from 0.16 to 0.32 inches in length; females are generally larger than males;
- Light–grey in color with four black‚ longitudinal stripes on the thorax;
- Large‚ bulbous‚ multi–faceted eyes;
- A pair of transparent wings;
- Abdomen is yellow or partially yellow with a dark median line.
Habitat and Behavior
Houseflies do not bite. Instead of a typical mouth opening‚ they have a proboscis which is used to suck up liquids. In order to eat‚ the housefly will repeatedly eject its own saliva onto the solid matter and then suck up the resulting mixture. This is an extremely unhygienic process.
Life Cycle & Life Expectancy
Musca domestica‚ the common house fly‚ like other members of true flies‚ goes through complete metamorphosis with four distinct stages: eggs‚ larvae‚ pupae‚ and adults.
Over a period of three to four days‚ females may lay up to 500 eggs in batches on the surface of a suitable food material such as garbage‚ animal carcasses‚ or feces. The eggs hatch within 12 hours into tiny‚ whitish‚ legless larvae also referred to as maggots‚ and they can grow up to 0.47 inches long. The larvae go through three larval instars before becoming pupae. Early stages of house fly larvae typically abhor light and may remain difficult to detect. At a later stage‚ the larvae leave the breeding source and wander around looking for dry‚ quiet sites to pupate in. The pupae may vary in color from yellow‚ brown‚ red‚ or black and undergo this developmental stage for about six days before becoming adults.
The duration of the life cycle depends on environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Under normal conditions‚ it takes about 7 to 10 days for a house fly to complete its life cycle from egg to adult. A single female may produce as many as 12 generations per summer. An adult house fly may live between 15 and 30 days after emerging from pupa and reach sexual maturity by the end of the first day of life.
Why should I be concerned?
The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that fly contaminate or destroy $10 billion worth of agricultural products annually. Businesses that rely on the safe manufacturing‚ handling‚ and storage of food must be extremely vigilant as house flies are often attracted to garbage‚ rotting food‚ and feces. However‚ it is their ability to move quickly from waste and unsanitary areas to exposed food and utensils that causes concerns and frustration.
House Flies & Diseases
House flies are common insects that are closely associated with humans. They pose a number of health threats because of their tendency to breed in garbage and other filthy decaying matter. House flies have the ability to pick up‚ carry‚ and spread microorganisms that potentially cause disease. At least 65 different diseases are known to be linked to house flies‚ including cholera‚ tuberculosis and typhoid fever. Some of the most common pathogens transmitted by house flies include Salmonella and E. coli bacteria‚ which cause food poisoning.
House flies transmit diseases mechanically by unwittingly picking up pathogens from contaminated sites and physically carrying the pathogens to other locations. When a house fly rests on and walks across materials such as decaying organic matter and feces‚ it picks up the pathogens on its body hair and the sticky pads on its feet. When they enter indoor structures‚ they often come into contact with food preparation surfaces and human food‚ thereby spreading the disease–causing organisms to materials directly involved in the process of preparing and eating meals. Sanitation is critical to controlling these pests.
Tips for prevention and control
The best way to repel flies is through simple‚ preventive measures. Flies prefer warm temperatures and are most active from late spring to early autumn. These tips may help you to control house flies:
- Limit access to your home as much as possible‚ keeping doors and windows closed.
- Replace broken windows and screens‚
- Clean all drains and sink areas‚
- Keeping surfaces clean will make your home less appealing to flies‚
- Reduce the presence of ripe fruits and vegetables; place them in a refrigerator or a paper bag and‚
- Close the lids on all garbage and waste containers‚
For best results‚ contact a PMP at The Pest Destructo Co.